3D APT and NOE CEST-MRI of healthy volunteers and patients with non-enhancing glioma at 3 T

Yulun Wu*, Tobias C. Wood, Fatemeh Arzanforoosh, Juan A. Hernandez-Tamames, Gareth J. Barker, Marion Smits, Esther A.H. Warnert*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective: Clinical application of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) can be performed with investigation of amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) effects. Here, we investigated APT- and NOE-weighted imaging based on advanced CEST metrics to map tumor heterogeneity of non-enhancing glioma at 3 T. Materials and methods: APT- and NOE-weighted maps based on Lorentzian difference (LD) and inverse magnetization transfer ratio (MTRREX) were acquired with a 3D snapshot CEST acquisition at 3 T. Saturation power was investigated first by varying B1 (0.5–2 µT) in 5 healthy volunteers then by applying B1 of 0.5 and 1.5 µT in 10 patients with non-enhancing glioma. Tissue contrast (TC) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated between glioma and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter, in APT- and NOE-weighted images. Volume percentages of the tumor showing hypo/hyperintensity (VPhypo/hyper,CEST) in APT/NOE-weighted images were calculated for each patient. Results: LD APT resulting from using a B1 of 1.5 µT was found to provide significant positive TCtumor,NAWM and MTRREX NOE (B1 of 1.5 µT) provided significant negative TCtumor,NAWM in tissue differentiation. MTRREX-based NOE imaging under 1.5 µT provided significantly larger VPhypo,CEST than MTRREX APT under 1.5 µT. Conclusion: This work showed that with a rapid CEST acquisition using a B1 saturation power of 1.5 µT and covering the whole tumor, analysis of both LD APT and MTRREX NOE allows for observing tumor heterogeneity, which will be beneficial in future studies using CEST-MRI to improve imaging diagnostics for non-enhancing glioma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-73
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was conducted with support from the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF): “Non-invasive phenotypying of molecular brain tumor profiles using novel advanced MR imaging and analysis”, EMCR 2015-7859, and from the Brain Tumour Charity; “Making the invisible visible: In vivo mapping of molecular biomarkers in adult diffuse glioma with CEST MRI”, GN-000540. EW is funded by a “Veni Vernieuwingsimpuls” from the Dutch Research Council entitled “Food for thought: Oxygen delivery to the brain”, Grant number 91619121.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


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