3D APT and NOE CEST-MRI of healthy volunteers and patients with non-enhancing glioma at 3 T

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Abstract

Objective Clinical application of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) can be performed with investigation of amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) effects. Here, we investigated APT- and NOE-weighted imaging based on advanced CEST metrics to map tumor heterogeneity of non-enhancing glioma at 3 T. Materials and methods APT- and NOE-weighted maps based on Lorentzian difference (LD) and inverse magnetization transfer ratio (MTRREX) were acquired with a 3D snapshot CEST acquisition at 3 T. Saturation power was investigated first by varying B-1 (0.5-2 mu T) in 5 healthy volunteers then by applying B-1 of 0.5 and 1.5 mu T in 10 patients with non-enhancing glioma. Tissue contrast (TC) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated between glioma and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter, in APT- and NOE-weighted images. Volume percentages of the tumor showing hypo/hyperintensity (VPhypo/hyper,CEST) in APT/NOE-weighted images were calculated for each patient. Results LD APT resulting from using a B-1 of 1.5 mu T was found to provide significant positive TCtumor,NAWM and MTRREX NOE (B-1 of 1.5 mu T) provided significant negative TCtumor,NAWM in tissue differentiation. MTRREX-based NOE imaging under 1.5 mu T provided significantly larger VPhypo,CEST than MTRREX APT under 1.5 mu T. Conclusion This work showed that with a rapid CEST acquisition using a B-1 saturation power of 1.5 mu T and covering the whole tumor, analysis of both LD APT and MTRREX NOE allows for observing tumor heterogeneity, which will be beneficial in future studies using CEST-MRI to improve imaging diagnostics for non-enhancing glioma.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-73
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
Volume35
Issue number1
Early online dateJan 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was conducted with support from the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF): “Non-invasive phenotypying of molecular brain tumor profiles using novel advanced MR imaging and analysis”, EMCR 2015-7859, and from the Brain Tumour Charity; “Making the invisible visible: In vivo mapping of molecular biomarkers in adult diffuse glioma with CEST MRI”, GN-000540. EW is funded by a “Veni Vernieuwingsimpuls” from the Dutch Research Council entitled “Food for thought: Oxygen delivery to the brain”, Grant number 91619121.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).

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