A co-evolutionary analysis of longevity: Pakhoed and its predecessors

Hugo van Driel, Henk Volberda, S Eikelboom, E Kamerbeek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


In this study of the warehousing company Pakhoed and its predecessors over a period of 200 years, we analyse the configuration of environmental forces, exploitation and exploration, and three firm-level longevity factors: a tolerant management style and decentralised structure; a strong sense of identity; and a conservative financial policy. The idiosyncratic set-up of Pakhoed's forerunners enabled their long-term survival through co-evolution with an environment that both compelled them to be responsive and provided them with scarce resources. In the most recent period, failed explorations helped Pakhoed to strengthen its sense of identity and to focus on a well-chosen field of exploitation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1277-1305
Number of pages29
JournalBusiness History
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2015

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