A literature survey on indicators for characterisation and optimisation of SAR distributions in deep hyperthermia, a plea for standardisation

Richard Canters, P Wust, Jurriaan Bakker, Gerard van Rhoon

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Purpose: To evaluate the predictive value of SAR indicators by assessing the correlation of a SAR indicator with the corresponding predicted temperature. Ultimately, this should lead to a number of verified SAR indicators for characterization and optimization of a predicted SAR distribution. Methods: A literature survey is followed by an evaluation of the SAR indicators on their functionality, using a set of heuristic classification criteria. To obtain an objective assessment of the predictive value for SAR characterisation, all SAR indicators are evaluated by correlating the value of the SAR indicator to the predicted target temperature when heated with the BSD2000 Sigma 60 applicator. Two methods were followed. First, the specificity of the SAR indicator to target temperature was assessed for each of the 36 patient-specific models, using 30 randomly chosen phase and amplitude settings. Secondly, each SAR indicator was used as a goal function to assess its suitability for optimisation purposes. Results: Only a selected number of SAR indicators correlate well with tumour/target-temperature. Hence, for target-related properties, an adequate set of SAR indicators is found in the literature. For hotspots, modifications are desirable. For optimisation purposes, improved objective functions have been defined. Conclusions: From the correlation of the SAR indicators with tumour temperature, a preferred set of SAR indicators is derived: For target heating, 'average SAR ratio', 'Hotspot-target SAR ratio', and 'homogeneity coefficient' provide suitable objective criteria, while for hotspot reduction, 'Hotspot-target SAR ratio' is considered the most useful indicator. For optimisation procedures, 'Hotspot-target SAR ratio' is currently the most suitable objective function.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)593-608
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Research programs

  • EMC MM-03-32-05

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