Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) has been put forward as a strong ally in our fight against invading pathogens across exposed epithelial surfaces by serving an antimicrobial immunosurveillance role in these tissues to protect the barrier integrity. Amongst other mechanisms that prevent tissue injury mediated by potential microbial threats and promote restoration of epithelial homeostasis, IL-17A attracts effector cells to the site of inflammation and support the host response by driving the development of ectopic lymphoid structures. Accumulating evidence now underscores an integral role of IL-17A in driving the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations in three potentially life-threatening autoimmune diseases, namely, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic sclerosis. Available studies provide convincing evidence that the abundance of IL-17A in target tissues and its prime source, which is T helper 17 cells (Th17) and double negative T cells (DNT), is not an innocent bystander but in fact seems to be prerequisite for organ pathology. In this regard, IL-17A has been directly implicated in critical steps of autoimmunity. This review reports on the synergistic interactions of IL-17A with other critical determinants such as B cells, neutrophils, stromal cells, and the vasculature that promote the characteristic immunopathology of these autoimmune diseases. The summary of observations provided by this review may have empowering implications for IL-17A-based strategies to prevent clinical manifestations in a broad spectrum of autoimmune conditions.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 Radjesh Bisoendial and Erik Lubberts.