BACKGROUND: Inactivating LH receptor (LHR) mutations have been described so far in men as well as in women. Phenotypes in men have been variable with in nearly all cases impairment of sex differentiation or azoospermia. We report a milder reproductive phenotype both in a male patient and his sister. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe a family that carries a homozygous mutation G -> A at position -1 at the intron 10-exon 11 boundary of the LHR gene. The male patient presented with delayed puberty, micropenis and oligospermia. Two of his sisters were homozygous for the same mutation and were infertile. Surprisingly, one of them was found to have had regular ovarian cycles for years and showed normal LH values (6.5 and 10.6 mIU/ml for LH and FSH, respectively). In vitro analysis showed that this altered splicing resulted in an LHR from which eight amino acids are deleted from the extracellular domain (Delta Tyr(317)-Ser(324)). In vitro expression has shown that the receptor was expressed and capable of LH-induced signaling, albeit with reduced potency (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LHR mutations may represent an underestimated cause of infertility in women, in addition to being responsible for male hypogonadism with reduced spermatogenesis.