A novel machine learning-based approach for the computational functional assessment of pharmacogenomic variants

Maria Theodora Pandi, Maria Koromina, Iordanis Tsafaridis, Sotirios Patsilinakos, Evangelos Christoforou, Peter J. van der Spek, George P. Patrinos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: The field of pharmacogenomics focuses on the way a person’s genome affects his or her response to a certain dose of a specified medication. The main aim is to utilize this information to guide and personalize the treatment in a way that maximizes the clinical benefits and minimizes the risks for the patients, thus fulfilling the promises of personalized medicine. Technological advances in genome sequencing, combined with the development of improved computational methods for the efficient analysis of the huge amount of generated data, have allowed the fast and inexpensive sequencing of a patient’s genome, hence rendering its incorporation into clinical routine practice a realistic possibility. Methods: This study exploited thoroughly characterized in functional level SNVs within genes involved in drug metabolism and transport, to train a classifier that would categorize novel variants according to their expected effect on protein functionality. This categorization is based on the available in silico prediction and/or conservation scores, which are selected with the use of recursive feature elimination process. Toward this end, information regarding 190 pharmacovariants was leveraged, alongside with 4 machine learning algorithms, namely AdaBoost, XGBoost, multinomial logistic regression, and random forest, of which the performance was assessed through 5-fold cross validation. Results: All models achieved similar performance toward making informed conclusions, with RF model achieving the highest accuracy (85%, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.90), as well as improved overall performance (precision 85%, sensitivity 84%, specificity 94%) and being used for subsequent analyses. When applied on real world WGS data, the selected RF model identified 2 missense variants, expected to lead to decreased function proteins and 1 to increased. As expected, a greater number of variants were highlighted when the approach was used on NGS data derived from targeted resequencing of coding regions. Specifically, 71 variants (out of 156 with sufficient annotation information) were classified as to “Decreased function,” 41 variants as “No” function proteins, and 1 variant in “Increased function.” Conclusion: Overall, the proposed RF-based classification model holds promise to lead to an extremely useful variant prioritization and act as a scoring tool with interesting clinical applications in the fields of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number51
JournalHuman Genomics
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2021

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'A novel machine learning-based approach for the computational functional assessment of pharmacogenomic variants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this