The metabolic profiling of a wide range of chemical classes relevant to understanding sarcopenia under conditions in which sample availability is limited, e.g., from mouse models, small muscles, or muscle biopsies, is desired. Several existing metabolomics platforms that include diverse classes of signaling lipids, energy metabolites, and amino acids and amines would be informative for suspected biochemical pathways involved in sarcopenia. The sample limitation requires an optimized sample preparation method with minimal losses during isolation and handling and maximal accuracy and reproducibility. Here, two developed sample preparation methods, BuOH-MTBE-Water (BMW) and BuOH-MTBE-More-Water (BMMW), were evaluated and compared with previously reported methods, Bligh-Dyer (BD) and BuOH-MTBE-Citrate (BMC), for their suitability for these classes. The most optimal extraction was found to be the BMMW method, with the highest extraction recovery of 63% for the signaling lipids and 81% for polar metabolites, and an acceptable matrix effect (close to 1.0) for all metabolites of interest. The BMMW method was applied on muscle tissues as small as 5 mg (dry weight) from the well-characterized, prematurely aging, DNA repair-deficient Ercc1∆/− mouse mutant exhibiting multiple–morbidities, including sarcopenia. We successfully detected 109 lipids and 62 polar targeted metabolites. We further investigated whether fast muscle tissue isolation is necessary for mouse sarcopenia studies. A muscle isolation procedure involving 15 min at room temperature revealed a subset of metabolites to be unstable; hence, fast sample isolation is critical, especially for more oxidative muscles. Therefore, BMMW and fast muscle tissue isolation are recommended for future sarcopenia studies. This research provides a sensitive sample preparation method for the simultaneous extraction of non-polar and polar metabolites from limited amounts of muscle tissue, supplies a stable mouse muscle tissue collection method, and methodologically supports future metabolomic mechanistic studies of sarcopenia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) in the Building Blocks of Life, grant number 737.016.015; the China Scholarship Council (CSC), No. 201706320322. J.H.J.H. was additionally supported by the European Research Council Advanced Grant Dam2Age, NIH grant (PO1 AG017242), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft—Project-ID 73111208—SFB 829, J.H.J.H. and W.P.V. by ZonMW Memorabel (733050810), and EJP-RD TC-NER RD20-113, and J.H.J.H., W.P.V. and Y.R. by ONCODE (Dutch Cancer Society). This research was part of the Netherlands X-omics Initiative and partially funded by NWO, project 184.034.019.
© 2022 by the authors.