Accelerated 2-D Real-Time Refraction-Corrected Transcranial Ultrasound Imaging

Moein Mozaffarzadeh, Dirk J. Eric Verschuur, Martin D. Verweij, Nico de Jong, Guillaume Renaud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In a recent study, we proposed a technique to correct aberration caused by the skull and reconstruct a transcranial B-mode image with a refraction-corrected synthetic aperture imaging (SAI) scheme. Given a sound speed map, the arrival times were calculated using a fast marching technique (FMT), which solves the Eikonal equation and, therefore, is computationally expensive for real-time imaging. In this article, we introduce a two-point ray tracing method, based on Fermat's principle, for fast calculation of the travel times in the presence of a layered aberrator in front of the ultrasound probe. The ray tracing method along with the reconstruction technique is implemented on a graphical processing unite (GPU). The point spread function (PSF) in a wire phantom image reconstructed with the FMT and the GPU implementation was studied with numerical synthetic data and experiments with a bone-mimicking plate and a sagittally cut human skull. The numerical analysis showed that the error on travel times is less than 10% of the ultrasound temporal period at 2.5 MHz. As a result, the lateral resolution was not significantly degraded compared with images reconstructed with FMT-calculated travel times. The results using the synthetic, bone-mimicking plate, and skull dataset showed that the GPU implementation causes a lateral/axial localization error of 0.10/0.20, 0.15/0.13, and 0.26/0.32 mm compared with a reference measurement (no aberrator in front of the ultrasound probe), respectively. For an imaging depth of 70 mm, the proposed GPU implementation allows reconstructing 19 frames/s with full synthetic aperture (96 transmission events) and 32 frames/s with multiangle plane wave imaging schemes (with 11 steering angles) for a pixel size of $200~\mu \text{m}$. Finally, refraction-corrected power Doppler imaging is demonstrated with a string phantom and a bone-mimicking plate placed between the probe and the moving string. The proposed approach achieves a suitable frame rate for clinical scanning while maintaining the image quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2599-2610
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2022

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