Purpose of review To summarize the current knowledge about the application of advanced monitoring techniques in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent findings Due to the heterogeneity between patients, management of COVID-19 requires daily monitoring of and/or aeration and inspiratory effort. Electrical impedance tomography can be used to optimize positive endexpiratory pressure, monitor the response to changes in treatment or body position and assess pulmonary perfusion and ventilation/perfusion matching. Lung ultrasound is more readily available and can be used to measure and monitor recruitment, provide an indication of diaphragm function and pulmonary perfusion disturbances. Esophageal pressure measurements enable the calculation of the transpulmonary pressure and inspiratory effort in order to prevent excessive stress on the lung. While esophageal pressure measurements are the golden standard in determining inspiratory effort, alternatives like P0.1, negative pressure swing during a single airway occlusion and change in central venous pressure are more readily available and capable of diagnosing extreme inspiratory efforts. Summary Although there is little data on the effectiveness of advanced monitoring techniques in COVID-19, regular monitoring should be a central part of the management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS).
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