The mammalian airways and lungs are exposed to a myriad of inhaled particulate matter, allergens, and pathogens. The immune system plays an essential role in protecting the host from respiratory pathogens, but a dysregulated immune response during respiratory infection can impair pathogen clearance and lead to immunopathology. Furthermore, inappropriate immunity to inhaled antigens can lead to pulmonary diseases. A complex network of epithelial, neural, stromal, and immune cells has evolved to sense and respond to inhaled antigens, including the decision to promote tolerance versus a rapid, robust, and targeted immune response. Although there has been great progress in understanding the mechanisms governing immunity to respiratory pathogens and aeroantigens, we are only beginning to develop an integrated understanding of the cellular networks governing tissue immunity within the lungs and how it changes after inflammation and over the human life course. An integrated model of airway and lung immunity will be necessary to improve mucosal vaccine design as well as prevent and treat acute and chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Given the importance of immunology in pulmonary research, the American Thoracic Society convened a working group to highlight central areas of investigation to advance the science of lung immunology and improve human health.
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by NIH K08 HL140173, NIH DK043351 via Massachusetts General Hospital Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Pilot Feasibility Study, Transformative Scholars Award from Massachusetts General Hospital (R.A.R.); NIH UH2 AI44434 and R01 HL148758 (J.L.C.); NIH R35 HL155458 (C.V.J.); NIH R01 AI155024, R01 AI150043, R01 AI111914, R01AI123780, and R01 AI134236 (S.A.K.); ERC Advanced Grant “ASTHMACRYSTALCLEAR”, EOS grant “BENEFICIARIES”, University of Ghent Methusalem grant (B.N.L.); Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship in Basic Biomedical Science 107059/Z/15/Z (C.M.L.); NIH R01 HL142701 (A.B.M.); Canada Research Chair Program 950-231859 and Canadian Institutes of Health Research 461275, 461274, 461275 (S.T.); NIH K23 HL143135 (C.A.B.); Ellen Dreiling Research Fund (W.P.D.); NIH R01 AI125644, U19 AI162310, R21 AI149416 (A.I.S.); R01 HL149883, R01 HL153122, P01 AG049665, P01 HL154998, and U19 AI135964 (B.D.S.).
© 2022 by the American Thoracic Society.