Methods:Background: Recently, we described a significant decrease in donor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursor frequency (CTLpf) after discontinuation of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), while the proliferative capacity in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), and the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) producing cells (pc) in Elispot remained unchanged. We tested T-cell reactivity in CNI free patients with stable renal graft function, on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) plus prednisone, who were tapered to 50% of their MMF or AZA dose. Results: Furthermore, tapering of the MMF or AZA dose resulted in a decrease of donor-reactive CTLpf in all patients with detectable CTLpf. Detectable numbers decreased from a median of 32 to 8 CTLp/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). No effect on third-party reactive CTLpf was found, while the T-cell reactivity to donor and third-party cells as tested in MLC and in IFN-gamma Elispot was not affected either by tapering of immunosuppression. Third-party reactivity was significantly higher than donor-specific reactivity in all tests. A control group showed no changes in any of the in vitro assays. Conclusion: Both withdrawal of CNI and tapering of MMF or AZA dose decreases the donor-specific CTLpf. Our data suggest that reduction of immunosuppression results in a specific decrease of donor-directed cytotoxic capacity of immunocompetent cells, while their proliferation and cytokine production capacity remained unchanged. Immunosuppression hinders development of cytotoxic non-responsiveness.