An Updated Review on EPR-Based Solid Tumor Targeting Nanocarriers for Cancer Treatment

Majid Sharifi, William C. Cho, Asal Ansariesfahani, Rahil Tarharoudi, Hedyeh Malekisarvar, Soyar Sari, Samir Haj Bloukh, Zehra Edis, Mohamadreza Amin, Jason P. Gleghorn*, Timo L.M. Ten Hagen, Mojtaba Falahati

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)
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The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in cancer treatment is one of the key mechanisms that enables drug accumulation at the tumor site. However, despite a plethora of virus/inorganic/organic-based nanocarriers designed to rely on the EPR effect to effectively target tumors, most have failed in the clinic. It seems that the non-compliance of research activities with clinical trials, goals unrelated to the EPR effect, and lack of awareness of the impact of solid tumor structure and interactions on the performance of drug nanocarriers have intensified this dissatisfac-tion. As such, the asymmetric growth and structural complexity of solid tumors, physicochemical properties of drug nanocarriers, EPR analytical combination tools, and EPR description goals should be considered to improve EPR-based cancer therapeutics. This review provides valuable insights into the limitations of the EPR effect in therapeutic efficacy and reports crucial perspectives on how the EPR effect can be modulated to improve the therapeutic effects of nanomedicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2868
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Fondecyt No. 1080294 and Fondecyt 1110719. This work was made possible with the cooperation of Jimena Ibarra, Katherine Solis and Ignacio Rudolph.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


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