Aortic valve repair in neonates, infants and children: a systematic review, meta-analysis and microsimulation study

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: 

To support clinical decision-making in children with aortic valve disease, by compiling the available evidence on outcome after paediatric aortic valve repair (AVr). 

METHODS: 

A systematic review of literature reporting clinical outcome after paediatric AVr (mean age at surgery <18 years) published between 1 January 1990 and 23 December 2021 was conducted. Early event risks, late event rates and time-to-event data were pooled. A microsimulation model was employed to simulate the lives of individual children, infants and neonates following AVr. 

RESULTS: 

Forty-one publications were included, encompassing 2 623 patients with 17 217 patient-years of follow-up (median follow-up: 7.3 years; range: 1.0-14.4 years). Pooled mean age during repair for aortic stenosis in children (<18 years), infants (<1 year) or neonates (<30 days) was 5.2 ± 3.9 years, 35 ± 137 days and 11 ± 6 days, respectively. Pooled early mortality after stenosis repair in children, infants and neonates, respectively, was 3.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.9-6.5%), 7.4% (4.2-13.0%) and 10.7% (6.8-16.9%). Pooled late reintervention rate after stenosis repair in children, infants and neonates, respectively, was 3.31%/year (1.66-6.63%/year), 6.84%/year (3.95-11.83%/year) and 6.32%/year (3.04-13.15%/year); endocarditis 0.07%/year (0.03-0.21%/year), 0.23%/year (0.07-0.71%/year) and 0.49%/year (0.18-1.29%/year); and valve thrombosis 0.05%/year (0.01-0.26%/year), 0.15%/year (0.04-0.53%/year) and 0.19%/year (0.05-0.77%/year). Microsimulation-based mean life expectancy in the first 20 years for children, infants and neonates with aortic stenosis, respectively, was 18.4 years (95% credible interval: 18.1-18.7 years; relative survival compared to the matched general population: 92.2%), 16.8 years (16.5-17.0 years; relative survival: 84.2%) and 15.9 years (14.8-17.0 years; relative survival: 80.1%). Microsimulation-based 20-year risk of reintervention in children, infants and neonates, respectively, was 75.2% (72.9-77.2%), 53.8% (51.9-55.7%) and 50.8% (47.0-57.6%). 

CONCLUSIONS: 

Long-term outcomes after paediatric AVr for stenosis are satisfactory and dependent on age at surgery. Despite a high hazard of reintervention for valve dysfunction and slightly impaired survival relative to the general population, AVr is associated with low valve-related event occurrences and should be considered in children with aortic valve disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberezad284
JournalEuropean journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Volume64
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.

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