Appeals in television advertising: A content analysis of commercials aimed at children and teenagers

Moniek Buijzen, PM Valkenburg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


A content analysis of 601 commercials was conducted in order to identify the appeals that characterize commercials aimed at children and teenagers. Our findings demonstrated that the use of appeals (a) showed strong age differences and (b) was highly gender-role stereotyped, particularly in commercials aimed at children. The most typical appeals in commercials aimed at male children were action-adventure, sports, and play, whereas commercials aimed at female children emphasized nurturing, physical attractiveness, friendship, and romance. Having the best, competition, and achievement were the dominant appeals in commercials aimed at male teenagers, whereas romance, sexuality, and belonging to a group were emphasized in commercials aimed at female teenagers.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)349-364
Number of pages16
JournalCommunications: the European journal of communication research (print)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

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