Assessing Clinical Potential of Old Antibiotics against Severe Infections by Multi-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Using In Silico Modelling

Paschalis Paranos, Sophia Vourli, Spyros Pournaras, Joseph Meletiadis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademic

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Abstract

In the light of increasing antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative bacteria and the lack of new more potent antimicrobial agents, new strategies have been explored. Old antibiotics, such as colistin, temocillin, fosfomycin, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, minocycline, and chloramphenicol, have attracted the attention since they often exhibit in vitro activity against multi-drug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The current review provides a summary of the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetics and PK/PD characteristics of old antibiotics. In silico modelling was then performed using Monte Carlo simulation in order to combine all preclinical data with human pharmacokinetics and determine the probability of target (1-log kill in thigh/lung infection animal models) attainment (PTA) of different dosing regimens. The potential of clinical efficacy of a drug against severe infections by MDR gram-negative bacteria was considered when PTA was >95% at the epidemiological cutoff values of corresponding species. In vitro potent activity against MDR gram-negative pathogens has been shown for colistin, polymyxin B, temocillin (against E. coli and K. pneumoniae), fosfomycin (against E. coli), mecillinam (against E. coli), minocycline (against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii), and chloramphenicol (against E. coli) with ECOFF or MIC90 ≤ 16 mg/L. When preclinical PK/PD targets were combined with human pharmacokinetics, Monte Carlo analysis showed that among the old antibiotics analyzed, there is clinical potential for polymyxin B against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii; for temocillin against K. pneumoniae and E. coli; for fosfomycin against E. coli and K. pneumoniae; and for mecillinam against E. coli. Clinical studies are needed to verify the potential of those antibiotics to effectively treat infections by multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1501
JournalPharmaceuticals
Volume15
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2022

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