There is evidence that the use oral bisphosphonates can lead to osteronecrosis of the jaws (ONJ). Although the occurrence of ONJ appears rare among oral bisphosphonates (BPs) users, it is important to know that it exists and can be opportunely minimized. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between BPs prescribed for the secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures and the occurrence of ONJ. An Italian record linkage claims database with a target population of around 18 million individuals (6 million over 55 years of age) constituted the data source. We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of individuals aged 55+ years old, who were discharged from hospitals with a primary diagnosis of incident osteoporotic fracture. The date related to the discharge diagnosis of ONJ was the index date. Conditional logistic regression for matched data was fitted to estimate the odds Any one of the 61 ascertained cases of ONJ (incidence rate, 36.6 per 100,000 person-years) was matched to 20 controls for a total of 1120 controls. When the exposure to BPs was modeled according to recency (i.e., exposure time window prior to the index date) of use, the adjusted OR (95 % CI) for current users was 2.8 (1.3-5.9) against never users. The cumulative use of BPs has shown to increase the incidence of ONJ among patients with primary osteoporotic fractures, although not statistically si Although the risk of BP-related ONJ appears low in non-oncological indications, it is important to be aware that it exists and to know how it may be predicted and possibly minimized.