Objective: To inventory provision and features of childhood hearing screening after the newborn period (CHS), primarily in Europe. Design: From each participating country or region, experts provided information through an extensive questionnaire: implementation year, age at screening, test method, pass criteria, screening location, screener profession, and quality indicators: coverage, referral, follow-up and detection rates, supplemented by literature sources. Study sample: Forty-two European countries or regions, plus Russia, Malawi, Rwanda, India, and China. Results: CHS was performed universally with pure-tone audiometry screening (PTS) in 17 countries or regions, whereas non-universal CHS was performed in eight with PTS or whisper tests. All participating countries with universal PTS had newborn hearing screening. Coverage rate was provided from three countries, detection rate from one, and referral and follow-up rate from two. In four countries, universal PTS was performed at two ages. Earliest universal PTS was performed in a (pre)school setting by nurses (n = 9, median age: 5 years, range: 3–7), in a healthcare setting by doctors and nurses (n = 7, median age: 4.5 years, range: 4–7), or in both (n = 1). Conclusions: Within universal CHS, PTS was mostly performed at 4–6 years by nurses. Insufficient collection of data and monitoring with quality indicators impedes evaluation of screening.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant agreement no. 733352. This study sponsor had no role in the study design, or the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data or in the writing of the report or in the decision to submit the article for publication. Members of the EUS€REEN Foundation contributed information from their local screening programmes. The following are members of the EUS€REEN Foundation contributing to this work: B. Qirjazi; D. Holzinger; L. Stappaert; B. Vos; F. Brkić; P. Rouev; X. Peng; M. Velepic; C. Thodi; J. Drsata; T. Ovesen; M. Bambus; M. Lepplaan; B. Ellefsen; R. Niemensivu; T. Willberg; F. Denoyelle; P. Matulat; T. Nikolopoulos; A. Gáborján; I. Hinriksdóttir; Z. Chaudhurri; G. Norman; L. Rubin; A. Martini; D. Spanca; M. Audere; S. Kušķe; N. Drazdiene, E. Lesinskas; J.M. Hild; M. Cakar; T. Fenech; W. Mulwafu; D. Chiaburu; T. Kujundžić; E. Zvrko; A. Meuwese; A. Goedegebure; H. Hoeve; V. Nagaraj; G. Greczka; L. Monteiro; M. Georgescu; G. Tavartkiladze; L. Gouma; S. Filipovic; G. Jokovic; L. Langova; I. Sebova; S. Battelino; D.W. Swanepoel; F. Núñez-Batalla, J.M. Sequi-Canet; I. Uhlén; B. Nora; M. Baydan; J. McCall.
Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society.