Assessment of the In Vivo Response to Nanobody-Targeted PDT Through Intravital Microscopy

Riëtte de Bruijn, Ann L B Seynhaeve, Timo L M Ten Hagen, Sabrina Oliveira*, Dominic J Robinson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Methods that allow real-time, longitudinal, intravital detection of the fluorescence distribution and the cellular and vascular responses within tumor and normal tissue are important tools to obtain valuable information when investigating new photosensitizers and photodynamic therapy (PDT) responses. Intravital confocal microscopy using the dorsal skinfold chamber model gives the opportunity to visualize and determine the distribution of photosensitizers within tumor and normal tissue. Next to that, it also allows the visualization of the effect of treatment with respect to changes in vascular diameter and blood flow, vascular leakage, and tissue necrosis, in the first days post-illumination. Here, we describe the preparation of the skinfold chamber model and the intravital microscopy techniques involved, for a strategy we recently introduced, that is, the nanobody-targeted PDT. In this particular approach, photosensitizers are conjugated to nanobodies to target these specifically to cancer cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)533-545
Number of pages13
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
Early online date4 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 677582).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


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