Assessment of Velocity, Range, and Smoothness of Wrist Circumduction Using Flexible Electrogoniometry

HP Singh, JJ Dias, Harm Slijper, Steven Hovius

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose To quantify the range, velocity, and smoothness of wrist circumduction, to explore the oblique functional plane of wrist circumduction, and to establish the reproducibility and reliability of these measures. Methods Forty healthy subjects with a mean age of 43 years and without a history of wrist pathology or pain participated in this study. We used a flexible electrogoniometer with a twin-axis sensor to measure the relative angles between the 2 end blocks while the subject performed maximum excursion of flexion-extension, radioulnar deviation, and circumduction of the wrist held in a standardized, fully pronated position. A software package was used to further analyze the characteristics of the cir Results The mean area of circumduction (4729 [degree-degree]) and circumference (265 degrees) of the circumduction curve indicated the total range of circumduction. The velocity of circumduction (mean 179 degrees/s) and the time (1.6 second) taken to complete 1 cycle of circumduction were similar in both hands. The 4 quadrants for the velocity of circumduction showed that the velocity was faster in the radioulnar deviation quadrants compared with flexion and extension. Quadrant analysis showed t Conclusions This technique was accurate and reliable in measuring the velocity, range, and smoothness of wrist circumduction. (J Hand Surg 2012;37A:2331-2339. Copyright (C) 2012 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. All rights reserved.)
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)2331-2339
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery-American Volume
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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