Introduction: Shockable rhythm following pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (pOHCA) is consistently associated with hospital and short-term survival. Little is known about the relationship between shockable rhythm and long-term outcomes (>1 year) after pOHCA. The aim was to investigate the association between first documented rhythm and long-term outcomes in a pOHCA cohort over 18 years. Methods: All children aged 1 day–18 years who experienced non-traumatic pOHCA between 2002–2019 and were subsequently admitted to the emergency department (ED) or pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital were included. Data was abstracted retrospectively from patient files, (ground) ambulance and Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) records, and follow-up clinics. Long-term outcome was determined using a Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) score at the longest available follow-up interval through august 2020. The primary outcome measure was survival with favorable neurologic outcome, defined as PCPC 1–2 or no difference between pre- and post-arrest PCPC. The association between first documented rhythm and the primary outcome was calculated in a multivariable regression model. Results: 369 children were admitted, nine children were lost to follow-up. Median age at arrest was age 3.4 (IQR 0.8–9.9) years, 63% were male and 14% had a shockable rhythm (66% non-shockable, 20% unknown or return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before emergency medical service (EMS) arrival). In adolescents (aged 12–18 years), 39% had shockable rhythm. 142 (39%) of children survived to hospital discharge. On median follow-up interval of 25 months (IQR 5.1–49.6), 115/142 (81%) of hospital survivors had favorable neurologic outcome. In multivariable analysis, shockable rhythm was associated with survival with favorable long-term neurologic outcome (OR 8.9 [95%CI 3.1–25.9]). Conclusion: In children with pOHCA admitted to ED or PICU shockable rhythm had significantly higher odds of survival with long-term favorable neurologic outcome compared to non-shockable rhythm. Survival to hospital discharge after pOHCA was 39% over the 18-year study period. Of survivors to discharge, 81% had favorable long-term (median 25 months, IQR 5.1–49.6) neurologic outcome. Efforts for improving outcome of pOHCA should focus on early recognition and treatment of shockable pOHCA at scene.
|Number of pages||11|
|Early online date||31 May 2021|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Sep 2021|