Association of monocyte HLA-DR expression over time with secondary infection in critically ill children: a prospective observational study

Nienke N. Hagedoorn, Pinar Kolukirik, Nicole M. A. Nagtzaam, Daan Nieboer, Sascha Verbruggen, Koen F. Joosten, Henriette Moll, Gertjan Driessen, Willem A. Dik, Clementien Vermont*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

An impaired immune response could play a role in the acquisition of secondary infections in critically ill children. Human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on monocytes (mHLA-DR) has been proposed as marker to detect immunosuppression, but its potential to predict secondary infections in critically ill children is unclear. We aimed to assess the association between mHLA-DR expression at several timepoints and the change of mHLA-DR expression over time with the acquisition of secondary infections in critically ill children. In this prospective observational study, children < 18 years with fever and/or suspected infection (community-acquired or hospital-acquired) were included at a paediatric intensive care unit in the Netherlands. mHLA-DR expression was determined by flow cytometry on day 1, day 2–3 and day 4–7. The association between delta-mHLA-DR expression (difference between last and first measurement) and secondary infection was assessed by multivariable regression analysis, adjusted for age and Paediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score. We included 104 patients at the PICU (median age 1.2 years [IQR 0.3–4.2]), of whom 28 patients (27%) developed a secondary infection. Compared to 93 healthy controls, mHLA-DR expression of critically ill children was significantly lower at all timepoints. mHLA-DR expression did not differ at any of the time points between patients with and without secondary infection. In addition, delta-mHLA-DR expression was not associated with secondary infection (aOR 1.00 [95% CI 0.96–1.04]). Conclusions: Our results confirm that infectious critically ill children have significantly lower mHLA-DR expression than controls. mHLA-DR expression was not associated with the acquisition of secondary infections.What is Known:• An impaired immune response, estimated by mHLA-DR expression, could play an essential role in the acquisition of secondary infections in critically ill children.• In critically ill children, large studies on the association of mHLA-DR expression with secondary infections are scarce.What is New:• Our study confirms that critically ill children have lower mHLA-DR expression than healthy controls.• mHLA-DR expression and change in mHLA-DR was not associated with the acquisition of secondary infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133–1142
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Pediatrics
Volume181
Issue number3
Early online date10 Nov 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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