Associations of dietary glycemic index and load during pregnancy with blood pressure, placental hemodynamic parameters and the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders

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Abstract

Purpose
The aim of this study was to examine the associations of dietary glycemic index and load with gestational blood pressure, placental hemodynamic parameters and the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders.

Methods
In a population-based cohort among 3378 pregnant Dutch women, dietary glycemic index and load were assessed from food frequency questionnaires at median 13.4 (95% range 9.9–22.9) weeks gestation. Blood pressure was measured in early-, mid- and late-pregnancy. Placental hemodynamic parameters were measured in mid- and late-pregnancy by ultrasound. Data on gestational hypertensive disorders was acquired from medical records.

Results
Mean dietary glycemic index (SD) was 58 (3) and mean dietary glycemic load (SD) was 155 (47). Dietary glycemic index was not associated with blood pressure, placental hemodynamic parameters and the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. Higher dietary glycemic load SDS was associated with a higher diastolic blood pressure in early-pregnancy, remaining after adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors ((0.98 (95% CI 0.35–1.61) mmHg per SDS increase in glycemic load). No other associations of glycemic load with blood pressure or placental hemodynamic parameters and the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders were present. No significant associations of dietary glycemic index and load quartiles with longitudinal blood pressure patterns from early to late-pregnancy were present.

Conclusion
Within this low-risk pregnant population, we did not find consistent associations of dietary glycemic index and load with blood pressure, placental hemodynamic parameters and the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. Further studies need to assess whether the effects on gestational hemodynamic adaptations are more pronounced among high-risk women with an impaired glucose metabolism.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)703-716
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume61
Issue number2
Early online date15 Sep 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Generation R Study is financially supported by the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Erasmus University Rotterdam and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. Dr. Romy Gaillard received funding from the Dutch Heart Foundation (grant number 2017T013), the Dutch Diabetes Foundation (grant number 2017.81.002) and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (NWO, ZonMW, grant number 543003109). This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the ERA-NET Cofund action (no 727565), European Joint Programming Initiative “A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life” (JPI HDHL, EndObesity project, ZonMW the Netherlands no. 529051026).

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