Associations of Maternal Urinary Concentrations of Phenols, Individually and as a Mixture, with Serum Biomarkers of Thyroid Function and Autoimmunity: Results from the EARTH Study

Glen McGee, Maximilien Génard-Walton, Paige L. Williams, T. I.M. Korevaar, Jorge E. Chavarro, John D. Meeker, Joseph M. Braun, Maarten A. Broeren, Jennifer B. Ford, Antonia M. Calafat, Irene Souter, Russ Hauser, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The associations between urinary phenol concentrations and markers of thyroid function and autoimmunity among potentially susceptible subgroups, such as subfertile women, have been understudied, especially when considering chemical mixtures. We evaluated cross-sectional associations of urinary phenol concentrations, individually and as a mixture, with serum markers of thyroid function and autoimmunity. We included 339 women attending a fertility center who provided one spot urine and one blood sample at enrollment (2009–2015). We quantified four phenols in urine using isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and biomarkers of thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (fT4, TT4), and triiodothyronine (fT3, TT3)), and autoimmunity (thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies (Ab)) in serum using electrochemoluminescence assays. We fit linear and additive models to investigate the association between urinary phenols—both individually and as a mixture—and serum thyroid function and autoimmunity, adjusted for confounders. As a sensitivity analysis, we also applied Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to investigate non-linear and non-additive interactions. Urinary bisphenol A was associated with thyroid function, in particular, fT3 (mean difference for a 1 log unit increase in concentration: −0.088; 95% CI [−0.151, −0.025]) and TT3 (−0.066; 95% CI [−0.112, −0.020]). Urinary methylparaben and triclosan were also associated with several thyroid hormones. The overall mixture was negatively associated with serum fT3 concentrations (mean difference comparing all four mixture components at their 75th vs. 25th percentiles: −0.19, 95% CI [−0.35, −0.03]). We found no evidence of non-linearity or interactions. These results add to the current literature on phenol exposures and thyroid function in women, suggesting that some phenols may alter the thyroid system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number521
JournalToxics
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The project was financed by Grants (R01ES022955, R01ES033651, R01ES009718, P30ES000002, and R01ES024381) from the National Institutes of Health. We also acknowledge the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), (RGPIN-2022-03068 and DGECR-2022-004433).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Associations of Maternal Urinary Concentrations of Phenols, Individually and as a Mixture, with Serum Biomarkers of Thyroid Function and Autoimmunity: Results from the EARTH Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this