Atypical neuroimaging characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in infants: a case series of hemorrhagic brain lesions in the deep grey matter

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Abstract

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multisystem condition associated with uncontrolled overproduction and infiltration of lymphocytes and histiocytes predominantly in liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and central nervous system. Neuroimaging findings on MRI are fairly nonspecific and classically include periventricular white matter signal abnormalities and diffuse atrophy. Focal parenchymal lesions may demonstrate post contrast ring or nodular enhancement and calcification. However, the MR imaging characteristics can be highly variable. Here, we present two cases of HLH in infants with multiple hemorrhagic lesions mostly depicted in both thalami and basal ganglia regions. Thalamic, basal ganglia, and brain stem involvement with hemorrhagic changes in HLH are rarely described in literature. Early diagnosis of HLH may be lifesaving. Awareness of the disease is necessary to investigate its characteristic findings and avoiding a delay in diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-288
Number of pages4
JournalNeuroradiology
Volume63
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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© 2020, The Author(s).

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