Aims The objective of the present study was to report our ongoing prospective cohort of autograft recipients with up to 21 years of follow-up. Methods and results All consecutive patients (n = 161), operated between 1988 and 2010, were analysed. Mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in echocardiographic measurements (n = 1023) over time in both the autograft and the pulmonary allograft. The mean patient age was 20.9 years (range 0.05-52.7)-66.5% were male. Early mortality was 2.5% (n = 4), and eight additional patients died during a mean follow-up of 11.6 +/- 5.7 years (range 0-21.5). Patient survival was 90% [95% confidence Conclusion We observed good late survival in patients undergoing autograft procedure without reinforcement techniques. However, over half of the autografts failed prior to the end of the second decade. The reoperation rate and the results of echocardiographic measurements over time underline the importance of careful monitoring especially in the second decade after the initial autograft operation and in particular in patients with pre-operative AR.