Objective: To assess the accuracy of a 3D camera for body contour detection in pediatric patient positioning in CT compared with routine manual positioning by radiographers. Methods and materials: One hundred and ninety-one patients, with and without fixation aid, which underwent CT of the head, thorax, and/or abdomen on a scanner with manual table height selection and with table height suggestion by a 3D camera were retrospectively included. The ideal table height was defined as the position at which the scanner isocenter coincides with the patient’s isocenter. Table heights suggested by the camera and selected by the radiographer were compared with the ideal height. Results: For pediatric patients without fixation aid like a baby cradle or vacuum cushion and positioned by radiographers, the median (interquartile range) absolute table height deviation in mm was 10.2 (16.8) for abdomen, 16.4 (16.6) for head, 4.1 (5.1) for thorax-abdomen, and 9.7 (9.7) for thorax CT scans. The deviation was less for the 3D camera: 3.1 (4.7) for abdomen, 3.9 (6.3) for head, 2.2 (4.3) for thorax-abdomen, and 4.8 (6.7) for thorax CT scans (p < 0.05 for all body parts combined). Conclusion: A 3D camera for body contour detection allows for automated and more accurate pediatric patient positioning than manual positioning done by radiographers, resulting in overall significantly smaller deviations from the ideal table height. The 3D camera may be also useful in the positioning of patients with fixation aid; however, evaluation of possible improvements in positioning accuracy was limited by the small sample size. Key Points: • A 3D camera for body contour detection allows for automated and accurate pediatric patient positioning in CT. • A 3D camera outperformed radiographers in positioning pediatric patients without a fixation aid in CT. • Positioning of pediatric patients with fixation aid was feasible using the 3D camera, but no definite conclusions were drawn regarding the positioning accuracy due to the small sample size.