B-cell regeneration during therapy has been considered as a strong prognostic factor in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the effects of therapy and hemodilution in bone marrow (BM) B-cell recovery have not been systematically evaluated during follow-up. MM (n = 177) and adult (≥50y) healthy donor (HD; n = 14) BM samples were studied by next-generation flow (NGF) to simultaneously assess measurable residual disease (MRD) and residual normal B-cell populations. BM hemodilution was detected in 41 out of 177 (23%) patient samples, leading to lower total B-cell, B-cell precursor (BCP) and normal plasma cell (nPC) counts. Among MM BM, decreased percentages (vs. HD) of BCP, transitional/naïve B-cell (TBC/NBC) and nPC populations were observed at diagnosis. BM BCP increased after induction therapy, whereas TBC/NBC counts remained abnormally low. At day+100 postautologous stem cell transplantation, a greater increase in BCP with recovered TBC/NBC cell numbers but persistently low memory B-cell and nPC counts were found. At the end of therapy, complete response (CR) BM samples showed higher CD19− nPC counts vs. non-CR specimens. MRD positivity was associated with higher BCP and nPC percentages. Hemodilution showed a negative impact on BM B-cell distribution. Different BM B-cell regeneration profiles are present in MM at diagnosis and after therapy with no significant association with patient outcome.
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