Background: Recent studies demonstrated that failure of achieving pharmacodynamic targets of commonly used antibiotics is common in critically ill patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can contribute to optimize the exposure of beta-lactams and ciprofloxacin. While evidence for TDM of these antibiotics is growing, translation into clinical implementation remains limited. Therefore, perceived barriers and facilitators are important for implementing TDM in this population. The primary aim of this study was to identify healthcare professionals’ barriers and facilitators for the implementation of TDM of beta-lactams and ciprofloxacin in Dutch intensive care units (ICU). Methods: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional online survey among healthcare professionals (HCPs) involved in antibiotic treatment of ICU patients. An adapted version of the Measurement Instrument for Determinants of Innovations was sent out. Items were considered barriers when ≥ 20% of participants responded with a negative answer. If ≥ 80% of the participants responded with a positive answer, the item was considered a facilitator. Results: Sixty-four HCPs completed the survey, of which 14 were from academic hospitals, 25 from general hospitals, and 25 from teaching hospitals. Most participants were hospital pharmacists (59%) or medical specialists (23%). Eleven barriers and four facilitators for implementation of TDM of beta-lactams were identified; 17 barriers for TDM of ciprofloxacin and no facilitators. The most important barriers were a lack of conclusive evidence, organizational support, and low availability of assays. Additional barriers were a lack of consensus on which specific patients to apply TDM and which pharmacodynamic targets to use. Identified facilitators for beta-lactam TDM implementation are low complexity and high task perception, combined with the perception that TDM is important to prevent side effects and to adequately treat infections. Twenty-eight percent of participants reported that flucloxacillin could be analyzed in their hospital. Assay availability of other beta-lactams and ciprofloxacin was lower (3–17%). Conclusion: Several barriers were identified that could obstruct the implementation of TDM of beta-lactams and ciprofloxacin in the ICU. In particular, education, clear guidelines, and organizational support should be considered when creating tailored implementation strategies. Finally, evidence of beneficial clinical outcomes on TDM of beta-lactams and ciprofloxacin can enhance further implementation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project has received funding from the Dutch Organisation for Health Research and Development ZonMw (Grant 848017008) and Erasmus University Medical Center MRace Grant. The funders had no role in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data or in writing manuscripts or the decision to publish.
Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s).