Introduction: For decisions on glioblastoma surgery, the risk of complications and decline in performance is decisive. In this study, we determine the rate of complications and performance decline after resections and biopsies in a national quality registry, their risk factors and the risk-standardized variation between institutions. Methods: Data from all 3288 adults with first-time glioblastoma surgery at 13 hospitals were obtained from a prospective population-based Quality Registry Neuro Surgery in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2017. Patients were stratified by biopsies and resections. Complications were categorized as Clavien-Dindo grades II and higher. Performance decline was considered a deterioration of more than 10 Karnofsky points at 6 weeks. Risk factors were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Patient-specific expected and observed complications and performance declines were summarized for institutions and analyzed in funnel plots. Results: For 2271 resections, the overall complication rate was 20 % and 16 % declined in performance. For 1017 biopsies, the overall complication rate was 11 % and 30 % declined in performance. Patient-related characteristics were significant risk factors for complications and performance decline, i.e. higher age, lower baseline Karnofsky, higher ASA classification, and the surgical procedure. Hospital characteristics, i.e. case volume, university affiliation and biopsy percentage, were not. In three institutes the observed complication rate was significantly less than expected. In one institute significantly more performance declines were observed than expected, and in one institute significantly less. Conclusions: Patient characteristics, but not case volume, were risk factors for complications and performance decline after glioblastoma surgery. After risk-standardization, hospitals varied in complications and performance declines.