Bicuspid aortic valve annulus: assessment of geometry and size changes during the cardiac cycle as measured with a standardized method to define the annular plane

Sara Boccalini*, Lidia R. Bons, Allard T. van den Hoven, Annemien E. van den Bosch, Gabriel P. Krestin, Jolien Roos-Hesselink, Ricardo P.J. Budde

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
32 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a complex malformation affecting not merely the aortic valve. However, little is known regarding the dynamic physiology of the aortic annulus in these patients and whether it is similar to tricuspid aortic valves (TAV). Determining the BAV annular plane is more challenging than for TAV. Our aim was to present a standardized methodology to determine BAV annulus and investigate its changes in shape and dimensions during the cardiac cycle. Methods: BAV patients were prospectively included and underwent an ECG-gated cardiac CTA. The annulus plane was manually identified on reconstructions at 5% intervals of the cardiac cycle with a new standardized method for different BAV types. Based on semi-automatically defined contours, maximum and minimum diameter, area, area-derived diameter, perimeter, asymmetry ratio (AR), and relative area were calculated. Differences of dynamic annular parameters were assessed also per BAV type. Results: Of the 55 patients included (38.4 ± 13.3 years; 58% males), 38 had BAV Sievers type 1, 10 type 0, and 7 type 2. The minimum diameter, perimeter, area, and area-derived diameter were significantly higher in systole than in diastole with a relative change of 13.7%, 4.8%, 13.7%, and 7.2% respectively (all p < 0.001). The AR was ≥ 1.1 in all phases, indicating an elliptic shape, with more pronounced flattening in diastole (p < 0.001). Different BAV types showed comparable dynamic changes. Conclusions: BAV annulus undergo significant changes in shape during the cardiac cycle with a wider area in systole and a more elliptic conformation in diastole regardless of valve type. Key Points: • A refined method for the identification of the annulus plane on CT scans of patients with bicuspid aortic valves, tailored for the specific anatomy of each valve type, is proposed. • The annulus of patients with bicuspid aortic valves undergoes significant changes during the cardiac cycle with a wider area and more circular shape in systole regardless of valve type. • As compared to previously published data, the bicuspid aortic valve annulus has physiological dynamics similar to that encountered in tricuspid valves but with overall larger dimensions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8116-8129
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number11
Early online date24 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study has received funding by Netherlands Heart Foundation (NHF 2013T093).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


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