Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) is produced by different cell types and is highly expressed in the thymus. It plays an important role in T cell development, trafficking and activation of mature T cells after binding to its receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) and consecutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) activation. Importantly, TARC is also produced by malignant Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg (HRS) cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). In cHL, HRS cells survive and proliferate due to the micro-environment consisting primarily of type 2 T helper (Th2) cells. TARC-mediated signaling initiates a positive feedback loop that is crucial for the interaction between HRS and T cells. The clinical applicability of TARC is diverse. It is useful as diagnostic biomarker in both children and adults with cHL and in other Th2-driven diseases. In adult cHL patients, TARC is also a biomarker for treatment response and prognosis. Finally, blocking TARC signaling and thus inhibiting pathological Th2 cell recruitment could be a therapeutic strategy in cHL. In this review, we summarize the biological functions of TARC and focus on its role in cHL pathogenesis and as a biomarker for cHL and other diseases. We conclude by giving an outlook on putative therapeutic applications of antagonists and inhibitors of TARC-mediated signaling.
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - 20 Feb 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was financially supported by the Erasmus MC Foundation, enabled by a legacy of the family Etienne-van Dijk.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.