Biomarker-oriented therapy in bladder and renal cancer

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Treatment of patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder or renal cancer has changed significantly during recent years and efforts towards biomarker-directed therapy are being investigated. Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) or fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) directed therapy are being evaluated for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, as well as muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients. Meanwhile, efforts to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) are still ongoing, and genomic biomarkers are being evaluated in prospective clinical trials. Currently, patients with metastatic UC (mUC) are usually treated with second-line ICI, while cisplatin-ineligible patients with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive tumors can benefit from first-line ICI. Platinum-relapsed UC patients harboring FGFR2/3 mutations can be treated with erdafitinib, while enfortumab vedotin has emerged as a novel third-line treatment option for mUC. In metastatic (clear cell) renal cell carcinoma (RCC), ICI was first introduced as second-line treatment after vascular endothelial growth factor receptor—tyrosine kinase inhibition (VEGFR-TKI). Currently, ICIs have also been introduced as first-line treatment in metastatic RCC. Although there is no evidence up to now for beneficial adjuvant treatment after surgery with VEGFR-TKIs in high-risk non-metastatic RCC, several trials are underway investigating the potential beneficial effect of ICIs in this setting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2832
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 11 Mar 2021

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