Aims: To evaluate the implications of an Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS) on the morphology of the superficial plaques. Methods and results: Forty-six patients who underwent Absorb BVS implantation and 20 patients implanted with bare metal stents (BMS) who had serial optical coherence tomographic examination at baseline and follow-up were included in this analysis. The thin-capped fibroatheromas (TCFA) were identified in the device implantation regions and in the adjacent native coronary segments. Within all regions, circumferential locations of TCFA and calcific tissues were identified, and the neointimal thickness was measured at follow-up. At six to 12-month follow-up, only 8% of the TCFA detected at baseline were still present in the Absorb BVS and 27% in the BMS implantation segment (p=0.231). Sixty percent of the TCFA in native segments did not change their phenotype at follow-up. At short-term follow-up, significant reduction in the lumen area of the BMS was noted, which was higher compared to that reported in the Absorb BVS group (-2.11 +/- 1.97 mm(2) vs. -1.34 +/- 0.99 mm(2), p=0.026). In Absorb BVS, neointima tissue continued to develop at midterm follow-up (2.17 +/- 0.48 mm(2) vs. 1.38 +/- 0.52 mm(2), p<0.0001) and covered the underlying tissues without compromising the luminal dimensions (5.93 +/- 1.49 mm(2) vs. 6.14 +/- 1.49 mm(2), p=0.571) as it was accommodated by the expanded scaffold (8.28 +/- 1.74 mm(2) vs. 7.67 +/- 1.28 mm(2), p<0.0001). Conclusions: Neointimal tissue develops following either Absorb BVS or BMS implantation and shields lipid tissues. The neointimal response in the BMS causes a higher reduction of luminal dimensions compared to the Absorb BVS. Thus, Absorb BVS may have a value in the invasive re-capping of high-risk plaques.