Introduction: The diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship of cancer have a profound effect on the quality of life and psychological well-being of men and women. Indeed, the perturbation of sexual function because of neoplasm has far-reaching implications. Aims: To explore the prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment of sexual issues in persons with cancer and offer evidence-based recommendations regarding optimal prevention and treatment strategies. Methods: A committee of multidisciplinary specialists was formed as part of the larger International Sexual Medicine Consultation working with urologic and sexual medicine societies over a 1-year period to review the result of chronic-illness management on sexual function and satisfaction. The aims, goals, data collection techniques, and report format were defined by a central committee. Main Outcomes Measures: Expert consensus was based on evidence-based medical and psychosocial literature review, extensive group discussion, and an open presentation with a substantial discussion period. Results: This summary evaluates contemporary literature concerning the prevalence, pathophysiology, and psychological impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on sexual dysfunction. Evidence-based recommendations and guidelines for evaluation and management are presented. Conclusion: The diagnosis and treatment of cancer have a significant negative impact on sexual function and satisfaction. Comprehension of baseline sexual function, role of psychological supports, and available treatment options could attenuate the heavy burden of decreased sexual function. Copyright (C) 2016, International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.