Introduction: Patients with carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) commonly have long-term morbidities. However, it is not known whether patients with COP exhibit an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) alters this risk. Methods: This study identified 8,618 patients who survived COP and 34,464 propensity score-matched non-COP patients from 2000 to 2013 in a nationwide administrative registry. The primary outcome was the development of CKD. The association between COP and the risk of developing CKD was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model; the cumulated incidence of CKD among patients stratified by HBOT was evaluated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: After adjusting for covariates, the risk of CKD was 6.15-fold higher in COP patients than in non-COP controls. Based on the subgroup analyses, regardless of demographic characteristics, environmental factors, and comorbidities, the COP cohort exhibited an increased risk of developing CKD compared with the controls. The cumulative incidence of CKD in COP patients did not differ between the HBOT and non-HBOT groups (p = 0.188). Conclusions: COP might be an independent risk factor for developing CKD. Thus, clinicians should enhance the postdischarge follow-up of kidney function among COP patients.