Monoclonal rat antibodies to mouse macrophage antigens were prepared. For immunization phagocytic cells in the spleens of mice recovering from sublethal irradiation were used. Specificities of the monoclonal antibodies obtained were determined on cells of normal mouse cell populations as well as on cells of a panel of mouse cell lines. In an attempt to monitor expression of differentiation-related antigens two models of in vitro-induced macrophage differentiation were used: differentiation of cells of the myeloblast line M1; CSF-1 -induced differentiation of bone marrow cells. The results obtained clearly show that during maturation from undifferentiated to highly differentiated cells of the macrophage lineage expression of antigens recognized by the MIV 38, MIV 55, MV 87, and MV 114 monoclonal antibodies is enhanced. At the same time, expression of antigens recognized by the MIV 52, MIV 113, and MIV 116 monoclonal antibodies diminishes at a similar rate. The suitability of these monoclonal antibodies for the characterization of differentiation states of mouse macrophages is discussed.