We present trends in incidence, early treatment and survival of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) between 1989 and 2008, based on population-based data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Incidence rates were stable at 5.1 per 100,000 person-years for males, but increased from 2.3 to 2.5 for females, especially for females aged 50-64 years (from 3.6 to 4.3). Patients were less likely to receive chemotherapy within six months, i.e. from 29% to 24% among males and from 25% to 21% among females. Five-year relative survival increased from 61% in 1989-1993 to 70% 2004-2008 for males, and from 71% to 76% for females. The relative excess risk of dying decreased in time to 0.7 (males) and 0.9 (females) in 2004-2008, reference 1989-1993, and increased with age to 2.9 (males) and 1.8 (females) in patients aged 75-94 years, reference 30-64 years. The increasing incidence among females aged 50-64 coincided with the introduction of mass screening for breast cancer, which resulted in a large group of women under increased surveillance and possibly led to increased detection of CLL. The increase in survival might be underestimated due to possible decreased or delayed registration of indolent cases and the retroactive effect of the introduction of new therapies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.