The circular economy is argued to be a way of organising industrial systems that support resilience through decoupling economic growth from material consumption. Yet, extant research exploring the impacts of circular economy business practices on resilience is nascent, with few studies detailing if and how these practices enable firms, industries and social-ecological systems to adapt and transform in the face of shocks and disturbances. In this article, we seek to advance research on the circular economy by proposing a research agenda that connects the circular economy to resilience at multiple levels. Based on insights from resilience theory and findings from the limited literature on the circular economy that has considered resilience to date, our research agenda focuses scholarly attention on key areas of congruence and contestation. We posit that pursuit of answers in these areas has the potential for advancing circular economy business practices capable of supporting resilience at multiple levels.