Circulatory markers of immunity and carotid atherosclerotic plaque

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Abstract

Background and aims: We aimed to determine the association of circulatory markers of innate and adaptive immunity with carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics. Methods: In 1602 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study with subclinicalcarotid atherosclerosis, blood sampling was performed to determine granulocyte, platelet, monocyte (innate immunity) and lymphocyte (adaptive immunity) counts, from which the granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [GLR], platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio [PLR], monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [MLR] and systemic immune-inflammation index [SII] were calculated. All participants underwent carotid MRI for evaluation of plaque characteristics. Plaque size (stenosis >30%, maximum plaque thickness) and plaque composition (presence of intraplaque hemorrhage [IPH], lipid-rich necrotic core [LRNC], and calcification) were assessed. Using linear and logistic regression models, the association of innate and adaptive immunity markers with plaque size and plaque components, adjusting for relevant confounders, was assessed. Results: Higher levels of granulocytes were significantly associated with larger plaque thickness (mean difference [Ln (mm)] per Ln increase granulocyte count [95% CI]: 0.06 [0.02; 0.10]). Conversely, more lymphocytes related with smaller maximum plaque thickness (mean difference [Ln (mm)] per Ln increase lymphocyte count: 0.09 [-0.14;-0.04]) and a lower prevalence of IPH (odds ratio per Ln increase lymphocyte count: 0.60 [0.37; 0.97]). Moreover, all ratio measures were associated with larger plaque thickness, of which the MLR also associated with more frequent LRNC (odds ratio per Ln increase MLR: 1.26 [1.02; 1.56]). Conclusions: The innate immunity links to larger plaques, whilst the adaptive immunity seems to relate to smaller plaques and a lower frequency of IPH. These results suggest that an imbalance in innate and adaptive immunity may play a role in the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-74
Number of pages6
JournalAtherosclerosis
Volume325
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We gratefully acknowledge the study participants of the Ommoord district and their general practitioners and pharmacists for their devotion in contributing to the Rotterdam Study. We also thank all staff that facilitated assessment of participants in the Rotterdam Study throughout the years.This work was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme [grant number 667375 ] (“CoSTREAM”); the Erasmus Medical Center and Erasmus University Rotterdam ; the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) [grant numbers 948-00-010, 918-46-615 ]; the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw); The Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (RIDE); the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports; the European Commission (DG XII); and the Municipality of Rotterdam.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021

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