Cis- and trans-regulation in X inactivation

Joke Bemmel, Hegias Mira Bontenbal, Joost Gribnau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Female mammalian cells compensate dosage of X-linked gene expression through the inactivation of one of their two X chromosomes. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in eutherians is dependent on the non-coding RNA Xist that is up-regulated from the future inactive X chromosome, coating it and recruiting factors involved in silencing and altering its chromatin state. Xist lies within the X-inactivation center (Xic), a region on the X that is required for XCI, and is regulated in cis by elements on the X chromosome and in trans by diffusible factors. In this review, we summarize the latest results in cis- and trans-regulation of the Xic. We discuss how the organization of the Xic in topologically associating domains is important for XCI (cis-regulation) and how proteins in the pluripotent state and upon development or differentiation of embryonic stem cells control proper inactivation of one X chromosome (trans-regulation).
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)41-50
Number of pages10
JournalChromosoma
Volume125
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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