Clinical and radiological hip parameters do not precede, but develop simultaneously with cam morphology: a 5-year follow-up study

P. van Klij*, M. P. Heijboer, A. Z. Ginai, J. A.N. Verhaar, J. H. Waarsing, R. Agricola

*Corresponding author for this work

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Purpose: The aim of this study was to (1) investigate whether radiographic and clinical parameters, which influence how stresses during sporting activities act on the proximal femur, are associated with cam morphology or (2) precede cam morphology development. Methods: Young male football players participated at baseline (n = 89, 12–19 years of age), 2.5-year (n = 63) and 5-year follow-up (n = 49). Standardized anteroposterior pelvic and frog-leg lateral radiographs were obtained at each time-point. Cam morphology was quantified by an alpha angle ≥ 60°, and large cam morphology ≥ 78°. The neck–shaft angle (NSA), epiphyseal extension (EE), lateral center–edge angle (LCEA) and hip internal rotation (IR) were also measured. Cross-sectional associations between NSA, EE, LCEA and IR and (large) cam morphology were studied at all time-points. To study whether these variables preceded cam morphology development, hips without cam morphology at baseline were studied prospectively. Results: A lower NSA, a higher EE and limited IR were consistently associated with cam morphology at all three time-points. These differences were more pronounced in hips with large cam morphology. No association between cam morphology and the LCEA was found. None of the parameters studied preceded cam morphology development. Conclusion: Cam morphology developed simultaneously with a varus orientation, growth plate extension towards the femoral neck and limited hip internal rotation. These parameters did not precede cam morphology development. The hip parameters studied cannot be used to identify individuals at risk of developing cam morphology. Level of Evidence:: Level II.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1401-1410
Number of pages10
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Issue number5
Early online date1 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

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