Background: Anomalous coronary artery originating from the opposite sinus of Vasalva with interarterial course (ACAOS-IAC) is associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. If identified in adulthood prognosis is usually more benign, resulting in a dilemma regarding revascularization. Methods: This is a retrospective observational single-center study, including adults with ACAOS-IAC. Medical records between 2012 and 2019 were reviewed for management approach, mortality, cardiac death and coronary related adverse events. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) were reviewed. We provide a literature review in regard to clinical outcome. Results: We identified 40 patients with ACAOS-IAC (mean age 51). Presentation was acute in 7/40 (18%). Ischemia detection with single photon emission tomography (SPECT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) or dobutamine stress echocardiography were performed in 25/40 (63%) patients. Ischemia in the vascular territory of the anomaly was present in 2/25 (8%). In 39/40 (98%) patients were treated expectative. During median follow-up of 2.7 years (IQR 1.5–5.3) no cardiovascular death was observed. Mortality occurred in 1/40 (3%) and coronary related adverse events in 2/40 (5%). We identified 20 studies describing 1194 patients. Revascularization was performed in 376/1154 (32.6%) patients. Mortality stratified for clinical management was 23/431 (5.3%) in the non-revascularization versus 16/253 (6.3%) in the revascularization group during 4.0 years follow-up (weighted median). Cause of death was cardiovascular in 10/596 (1.7%) in 4.2 years (weighted median) follow up. Conclusions: Both revascularization and non-invasive management have good prognosis in adults with ACAOS-IAC during early follow up. There is need for guidelines and long-term surveillance.
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