Clinical outcome of COVID-19 in patients with adult congenital heart disease

Markus Schwerzmann*, Francisco Javier Ruperti-Repilado, Helmut Baumgartner, Berto Bouma, Judith Bouchardy, Werner Budts, Laurence Campens, Massimo Chessa, Maria Jesús Del Cerro Marin, Harald Gabriel, Pastora Gallego, Rocio Garcia-Orta, Ana Elvira Gonzalez, Annette Schophuus Jensen, Magalie Ladouceur, Berta Miranda-Barrio, Marielle Morissens, Agnes Pasquet, Joaquín Rueda, Annemien E. Van Den BoschHeleen Berdina Van Der Zwaan, Daniel Tobler, Matthias Greutmann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Aims Patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) are a potentially vulnerable patient cohort in case of COVID-19. Some cardiac defects may be associated with a poor COVID-19 outcome. Risk estimation in ACHD is currently based on expert opinion. The aim of this study was to collect clinical outcome data and to identify risk factors for a complicated course of COVID-19 in patients with ACHD. Methods Twenty-five ACHD centres in nine European countries participated in the study. Consecutive patients with ACHD diagnosed with COVID-19 presenting to one of the participating centres between 27 March and 6 June 2020 were included. A complicated disease course was defined as hospitalisation for COVID-19 requiring non-invasive or invasive ventilation and/or inotropic support, or a fatal outcome. Results Of 105 patients with a mean age of 38±13 years (58% women), 13 had a complicated disease course, of whom 5 died. In univariable analysis, age (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7, per 5 years), ≥2 comorbidities (OR 7.1, 95% CI 2.1 to 24.5), body mass index of >25 kg/m 2 (OR 7.2, 95% CI 1.9 to 28.3) and cyanotic heart disease (OR 13.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 68.4) were associated with a complicated disease course. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cyanotic heart disease was the most important predictor (OR 60.0, 95% CI 7.6 to 474.0). Conclusions Among patients with ACHD, general risk factors (age, obesity and multiple comorbidities) are associated with an increased risk of complicated COVID-19 course. Congenital cardiac defects at particularly high risk were cyanotic lesions, including unrepaired cyanotic defects or Eisenmenger syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1226-1232
Number of pages7
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding The European Collaboration for Prospective Outcome Research in Congenital Heart Disease is funded by internal grants without support from the pharmaceutical industry.

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