Clinical outcomes of rifampicin combination therapy in implant-associated infections due to staphylococci and streptococci: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Erlangga Yusuf, Wichor Bramer, Adam A. Anas*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Objectives: Adjunctive rifampicin for implant-associated infections is controversial. This study investigated the clinical outcomes of rifampicin combination therapy compared with monotherapy in treating prosthetic joint infection (PJI) or prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) due to staphylococci and streptococci. Methods: A systematic search was performed from inception to 13 June 2022 in Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane and Web of Science to investigate the clinical outcomes of rifampicin combination therapy compared with monotherapy in treating staphylococcal and streptococcal PJI or PVE. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Results: Fourteen studies were included. A moderate quality of evidence was found in favour of rifampicin in patients with staphylococcal PJI who underwent a debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) procedure [odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93–3.23]. Including the two RCTs only, adding rifampicin to the antibiotic regimen after DAIR was also in favour of rifampicin, but this was not statistically significant (risk ratio = 1.27, 95% CI 0.79–2.04; n = 126). Pooling data for patients with staphylococcal PJI who underwent a two-stage procedure showed that adding rifampicin was not associated with therapeutic success. Limited evidence was found for the use of rifampicin for PVE caused by staphylococci. Conclusions: Adding rifampicin in the treatment of staphylococcal PJI treated by DAIR clearly increased the likelihood for therapeutic success. The clinical benefit of adjunctive rifampicin in the treatment of other staphylococci and streptococci implant-associated infections is still unclear.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107015
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Volume63
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

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