Clinical relevance of distinguishing autoimmune nodopathies from CIDP: longitudinal assessment in a large cohort

MC Broers, L Wieske, E Erdag, C Gürlek, C Bunschoten, PA van Doorn, F Eftimov, K Kuitwaard, JM de Vries, M de Wit, MMP Nagtzaam, SC Franken, LIS Zhu, M Paunovic, M de Wit, MWJ Schreurs, C Lleixà, L Martín-Aguilar, E Pascual-Goñi, L QuerolBC Jacobs, R Huizinga, MJ Titulaer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to determine treatment response and whether it is associated with antibody titre change in patients with autoimmune nodopathy (AN) previously diagnosed as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and to compare clinical features and treatment response between AN and CIDP. Methods: Serum IgG antibodies to neurofascin-155 (NF155), contactin-1 (CNTN1) and contactin-associated protein 1 (CASPR1) were detected with cell-based assays in patients diagnosed with CIDP. Clinical improvement was determined using the modified Rankin scale, need for alternative and/or additional treatments and assessment of the treating neurologist. Results: We studied 401 patients diagnosed with CIDP and identified 21 patients with AN (10 anti-NF155, 6 anti-CNTN1, 4 anti-CASPR1 and 1 anti-NF155/anti-CASPR1 double positive). In patients with AN ataxia (68% vs 28%, p=0.001), cranial nerve involvement (34% vs 11%, p=0.012) and autonomic symptoms (47% vs 22%, p=0.025) were more frequently reported; patients with AN improved less often after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (39% vs 80%, p=0.002) and required additional/alternative treatments more frequently (84% vs 34%, p<0.001), compared with patients with CIDP. Antibody titres decreased or became negative in patients improving on treatment. Treatment withdrawal was associated with a titre increase and clinical deterioration in four patients. Conclusions: Distinguishing CIDP from AN is important, as patients with AN need a different treatment approach. Improvement and relapses were associated with changes in antibody titres, supporting the pathogenicity of these antibodies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberjnnp-2023-331378
Pages (from-to)52-60
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Volume95
Issue number1
Early online date25 Oct 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2024

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