Cognitive Impairment in Diabetes: Rationale and Design Protocol of the Cog-ID Study

Paula S. Koekkoek*, Jolien Janssen, Minke Kooistra, Esther van den Berg, L. Jaap Kappelle, Geert Jan Biessels, Guy E. H. M. Rutten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Web of Science)
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Background: Cognitive impairment frequently co-occurs with type 2 diabetes but is often undiagnosed. Cognitive impairment affects self-management leading to treatment-related complications.

Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a stepped diagnostic procedure, consisting of a screening test complemented by an evaluation by a general practitioner (GP), to detect undiagnosed cognitive impairment in older people with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: The accuracy of two self-administered cognitive tests, the "Test Your Memory" (TYM) and "Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination" (SAGE) alone, and in combination with an evaluation by a GP will be assessed. A diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia at a memory clinic will serve as reference standard. This cognitive impairment in diabetes (Cog-ID) study will include 513 people from primary care facilities aged >= 70 with type 2 diabetes. The participants will first fill out the TYM and SAGE tests, followed by a standardized GP evaluation for cognitive impairment, including a mini mental state examination (MMSE). Subsequently, participants suspected of cognitive impairment (on either test or the GP assessment) and a random sample of 15% (65/435) of participants without suspected cognitive impairment will be referred to the memory clinic. At the memory clinic, a medical examination, neuropsychological examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain will be performed. Participants will also fill out questionnaires assessing health status and depressive symptoms at baseline and after 6 and 24 months.

Results: This research obtained funding and ethical approval. Enrolment started in August, 2012, and all study-related activities will be completed in September, 2016.

Conclusions: With the results from this study, physicians will be able to detect cognitive impairment affecting type 2 diabetes patients through case-finding, and can use tailored care to reduce associated complications. Additionally, the results may stimulate discussions about cognitive impairment and whether early recognition is desirable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number69
Number of pages10
JournalJMIR Research Protocols
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


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