COMPARE LAAO: Rationale and design of the randomized controlled trial "COMPARing Effectiveness and safety of Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion to standard of care for atrial fibrillation patients at high stroke risk and ineligible

Marina Huijboom*, Moniek Maarse, Errol Aarnink, Vincent van Dijk, Martin Swaans, Jeroen van der Heijden, Sander IJsselmuiden, Richard Folkeringa, Yuri Blaauw, Arif Elvan, Jeroen Stevenhagen, George Vlachojannis, Pepijn van der Voort, Sjoerd Westra, Marisevi Chaldoupi, Muchtiar Khan, Joris de Groot, Frank van der Kley, Nicolas van Mieghem, Ewoud van DijkMarcel Dijkgraaf, Jan Tijssen, Lucas Boersma

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Background: Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) provides an alternative to oral anticoagulation (OAC) for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In patients with a long-term or permanent contraindication for OAC randomized controlled trial (RCT) data is lacking. Study objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of LAAO in AF patients who are ineligible to use OAC. The co-primary efficacy endpoint is (1) time to first occurrence of stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic, or undetermined) and (2) time to first occurrence of the composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and systemic embolism (SE). The primary safety endpoint is the 30-day rate of peri-procedural complications. Study design: This is a multicenter, investigator-initiated, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE), superiority-driven RCT. Patients with AF, a CHA₂DS₂-VASc score ≥2 for men and ≥3 for women and a long-term or permanent contraindication for OAC will be randomized in a 2:1 fashion to the device- or control arm. Patients in the device arm will undergo percutaneous LAAO and will receive post-procedural dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) per protocol, while those in the control arm will continue their current treatment consisting of no antithrombotic therapy or (D)APT as deemed appropriate by the primary responsible physician. In this endpoint-driven trial design, assuming a 50% lower stroke risk of LAAO compared to conservative treatment, 609 patients will be followed for a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 5 years. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses will be performed to allow decision-making on reimbursement of LAAO for the target population in the Netherlands. The COMPARE LAAO trial will investigate the clinical superiority in preventing thromboembolic events and cost-effectiveness of LAAO in AF patients with a high thromboembolic risk and a contraindication for OAC use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-56
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Volume250
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

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