Objectives: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, colonize the respiratory tract of cyctic fibrosis patients. These strains are phenotypically difficult to discriminate, but differ greatly in their pathogenic potential and species identification is relevant. Here, three methods were compared for their diagnostic capacity. Methods: A Bcc collection was analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, AFLP and rep-PCR analysis. Results: Raman spectroscopy of 40 strains revealed high similarity. Rep-PCR and AFLP of respectively 96 and 112 strains revealed that Bcc strains could be distinguished from Pseudomonas strains. Both molecular methods allowed the identification of most Bcc species according to previous phenotypic and molecular characterization. Conclusion: Both AFLP and rep-PCR method data correspond with the previously reported species identification. However, Raman spectroscopy does not discriminate among P. aeruginosa and Bcc species and is therefore not useful as a diagnostic tool. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.