Confined placental mosaicism: Distribution of chromosomally abnormal cells over the term placenta

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Abstract

Objective:
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) investigates placental DNA and may detect confined placental mosaicism (CPM). The aim of this study was to confirm CPM in the term placenta in cases with abnormal NIPT but normal follow-up cytogenetic studies of fetus and mother. Additionally we examined the distribution of abnormal cells over the placenta.

Methods:
Four chorionic villus (CV) biopsies from four placental quadrants were requested in cases where CPM was assumed. Both cell lineages of the CV, cytotrophoblast (CTB) and mesenchymal core (MC), were analyzed separately with SNP array.

Results:
The chromosome aberration was confirmed in 67 % of the placentas. Three quarters of the CTB and MC biopsies from these mosaic placentas were uniformly normal (57 %) or abnormal (20 %), and a minority showed mosaicism. Among 16 cases of CPM where first trimester CV were examined as well, 11 had chromosomally normal results during pregnancy.

Discussion:
Cytogenetic investigations of term placental biopsies suspected to be affected with CPM did not reveal the chromosome aberration in one third of the placentas. This is caused by the patchy pattern in which chromosomally abnormal cells are distributed over the placenta with the majority of the biopsies being uniformly normal. Further CPM research, including its clinical impact, requires the analysis of more than four biopsies to get insight into the extent of the affected part. Moreover, a subset of CPM type 1 and 3 seems to be only detectable with NIPT and not with first trimester CVS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-65
Number of pages6
JournalPlacenta
Volume154
Early online date15 Jun 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Jun 2024

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© 2024 The Authors

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