Background: Contemporary data regarding the characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are needed. We aimed to assess these data and guideline adherence in the EURObservational Research Programme on Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) long-term general registry. Methods: We analysed 967 patients from the EORP-AF long-term general registry included in the Netherlands and Belgium from 2013 to 2016. Baseline and 1‑year follow-up data were gathered. Results: At baseline, 887 patients (92%) received anticoagulant treatment. In 88 (10%) of these patients, no indication for chronic anticoagulant treatment was present. A rhythm intervention was performed or planned in 52 of these patients, meaning that the remaining 36 (41%) were anticoagulated without indication. Forty patients were not anticoagulated, even though they had an indication for chronic anticoagulation. Additionally, 63 of the 371 patients (17%) treated with a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) were incorrectly dosed. In total, 50 patients (5%) were overtreated and 89 patients (9%) were undertreated. However, the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was still low with 4.2% (37 patients). Conclusions: Overtreatment and undertreatment with anticoagulants are still observable in 14% of this contemporary, West-European AF population. Still, MACCE occurred in only 4% of the patients after 1 year of follow-up.